FORUM FÜR KOLUMBIEN – Leben, Reisen & Arbeiten in Kolumbien. Erfahrungen LEBEN IN KOLUMBIEN Alltag REISEN IN KOLUMBIEN Berichte, Hotels. Jan. Nach Kolumbien haben sich lange Zeit kaum Touristen getraut. Doch mittlerweile ist das faszinierendste Land Südamerikas wieder gut zu. Startseite › Foren › Kolumbienforum – Fragen, Antworten, Tipps und Empfehlungen. Dieses Forum enthält 22 Themen und 25 Antworten. Es wurde zuletzt. Archived from wolfsburg werder live stream original on 10 June The primary and secondary gross enrolment ratios stood at This qualification is usually awarded by the SENA after a niedersachsen volleyball years curriculum. Beste Spielothek in Suracqua finden with African ancestry in Colombia are concentrated mostly in coastal areas. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The League finally awarded the disputed area to Colombia in June Kolumbien Festland und allgemeine Fragen. Jeder kann hier mitmachen. El pueblo wayuu de la Guajira colombo-venezolana: Colombia is the country in the planet more characterized by a high biodiversity, with t.h.e. grand casino stuttgart gmbh highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemisms species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.
Total government expenditures account for External debt equals A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings. The financial sector has grown favorably due to good liquidity in the economy, the growth of credit and the positive performance of the Colombian economy.
The electricity production in Colombia comes mainly from renewable energy sources. Colombia is rich in natural resources, and its main exports include mineral fuels, oils, distillation products , fruit and other agricultural products, sugars and sugar confectionery, food products , plastics, precious stones, metals, forest products, chemical goods , pharmaceuticals , vehicles, electronic products, electrical equipments, perfumery and cosmetics, machinery, manufactured articles, textile and fabrics, clothing and footwear, glass and glassware, furniture, prefabricated buildings, military products, home and office material, construction equipment, software , among others.
Non-traditional exports have boosted the growth of Colombian foreign sales as well as the diversification of destinations of export thanks to new free trade agreements.
The multidimensional poverty rate stands at Tourism generated , jobs 2. Colombia has more than 3, research groups in science and technology.
Co-working spaces have arisen to serve as communities for startups large and small. Important inventions related to the medicine have been made in Colombia, such as the first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes , invented by the electronics engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo , invention of great importance for those who suffer from heart failure.
Also invented in Colombia were the microkeratome and keratomileusis technique, which form the fundamental basis of what now is known as LASIK one of the most important techniques for the correction of refractive errors of vision and the Hakim valve for the treatment of Hydrocephalus , among others.
Some leading Colombian scientists are Joseph M. The population growth rate for is estimated to be 0. The proportion of older persons in the total population has begun to increase substantially.
The population is concentrated in the Andean highlands and along the Caribbean coast , also the population densities are generally higher in the Andean region.
The life expectancy is Colombia is ranked third in the world in the Happy Planet Index. Including Spanish, a total of languages are listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database.
The specific number of spoken languages varies slightly since some authors consider as different languages what others consider to be varieties or dialects of the same language.
Best estimates recorded 71 languages that are spoken in-country today—most of which belong to the Chibchan , Tucanoan , Bora—Witoto , Guajiboan , Arawakan , Cariban , Barbacoan , and Saliban language families.
There are currently about , speakers of native languages. Colombia is ethnically diverse, its people descending from the original native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, Africans originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century immigrants from Europe and the Middle East , all contributing to a diverse cultural heritage.
The populations of the major cities also include mestizos. Mestizo campesinos people living in rural areas also live in the Andean highlands where some Spanish conquerors mixed with the women of Amerindian chiefdoms.
Mestizos include artisans and small tradesmen that have played a major part in the urban expansion of recent decades.
Indigenous Amerindians comprise 3. Many of the Indigenous peoples experienced a reduction in population during the Spanish rule  and many others were absorbed into the mestizo population, but the remainder currently represents over eighty distinct cultures.
Reserves resguardos established for indigenous peoples occupy 30,, hectares , In , Colombia signed and ratified the current international law concerning indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, Black Africans were brought as slaves , mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century and continuing into the 19th century.
Large Afro-Colombian communities are found today on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including people from the former USSR during and after the Second World War.
Many immigrant communities have settled on the Caribbean coast, in particular recent immigrants from the Middle East. Barranquilla the largest city of the Colombian Caribbean and other Caribbean cities have the largest populations of Lebanese , Palestinian , and other Arabs.
The remaining people either did not respond or replied that they did not know. In addition to the above statistics, While Colombia remains a mostly Roman Catholic country by baptism numbers, the Colombian constitution guarantees freedom of religion and all religious faiths and churches are equally free before the law.
Colombia is a highly urbanized country. Cartagena highlights in number of inhabitants and the city of Bucaramanga is relevant in terms of metropolitan area population.
Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America and the broader American continent, and as such has been hit by a wide range of cultural influences.
Native American , Spanish and other European , African , American , Caribbean , and Middle Eastern influences, as well as other Latin American cultural influences, are all present in Colombia's modern culture.
Urban migration, industrialization, globalization, and other political, social and economic changes have also left an impression. Many national symbols , both objects and themes, have arisen from Colombia's diverse cultural traditions and aim to represent what Colombia, and the Colombian people, have in common.
Cultural expressions in Colombia are promoted by the government through the Ministry of Culture. Colombian literature dates back to pre-Columbian era; a notable example of the period is the epic poem known as the Legend of Yurupary.
Colombian art has over 3, years of history. Colombian artists have captured the country's changing political and cultural backdrop using a range of styles and mediums.
They erected raised ceremonial centres, sarcophagi , and large stone monoliths depicting anthropomorphic and zoomorphhic forms out of stone.
Colombian art has followed the trends of the time, so during the 16th to 18th centuries, Spanish Catholicism had a huge influence on Colombian art, and the popular baroque style was replaced with rococo when the Bourbons ascended to the Spanish crown.
Since the s, the Colombian art started to have a distinctive point of view, reinventing traditional elements under the concepts of the 20th century.
Carlos Correa, with his paradigmatic "Naturaleza muerta en silencio" silent dead nature , combines geometrical abstraction and cubism.
The Colombian sculpture from the sixteenth to 18th centuries was mostly devoted to religious depictions of ecclesiastic art, strongly influenced by the Spanish schools of sacred sculpture.
During the early period of the Colombian republic, the national artists were focused in the production of sculptural portraits of politicians and public figures, in a plain neoclassicist trend.
Colombian photography was marked by the arrival of the daguerreotype. Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros was who brought the daguerreotype process to Colombia in The Piloto public library has Latin America's largest archive of negatives, containing 1.
The Colombian press has promoted the work of the cartoonists. In recent decades, fanzines , internet and independent publishers have been fundamental to the growth of the comic in Colombia.
Throughout the times, there have been a variety of architectural styles , from those of indigenous peoples to contemporary ones, passing through colonial military and religious , Republican, transition and modern styles.
Ancient habitation areas, longhouses, crop terraces , roads as the Inca road system , cemeteries, hypogeums and necropolises are all part of the architectural heritage of indigenous peoples.
Architecture during the period of conquest and colonization is mainly derived of adapting European styles to local conditions, and Spanish influence , especially Andalusian and Extremaduran , can be easily seen.
The National Capitol is a great representative of romanticism. The Caribbean architecture acquires a strong Arabic influence. Deco style, modern neoclassicism , eclecticism folklorist and art deco ornamental resources significantly influenced the architecture of Colombia, especially during the transition period.
The contemporary architecture of Colombia is designed to give greater importance to the materials , this architecture takes into account the specific natural and artificial geographies and is also an architecture that appeals to the senses.
Colombia has a vibrant collage of talent that touches a full spectrum of rhythms. Musicians, composers, music producers and singers from Colombia are recognized internationally such as Shakira , Juanes , Carlos Vives and others.
Colombia has a diverse and dynamic musical environment. The music from the Pacific coast, such as the currulao is characterized by its strong use of drums instruments such as the native marimba , the conunos, the bass drum , the side drum and the cuatro guasas or tubular rattle.
An important rhythm of the south region of the Pacific coast is the contradanza it is used in dance shows, as a result of the striking colours of the costumes.
Important musical rhythms of the Andean Region are the danza dance of Andean folklore arising from the transformation of the European contredance , the bambuco it is played with guitar, tiple  and mandolin , the rhythm is danced by couples , the pasillo a rhythm inspired by the Austrian waltz and the Colombian "danza", the lyrics have been composed by well-known poets , the guabina the tiple, the bandola and the requinto are the basic instruments , the sanjuanero it originated in Tolima and Huila Departments, the rhythm is joyful and fast.
The instruments that distinguish the music of the Eastern Plains are the harp , the cuatro a type of four-stringed guitar and maracas.
Important rhythms of this region are the joropo a fast rhythm and there is also tapping as a result of its flamenco ancestry and the galeron it is heard a lot while cowboys are working.
The music of the Amazon region is strongly influenced by the indigenous religious practices. Some popular archipelago rhythms are the Schottische , the Calypso , the Polka and the Mento.
Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in through zarzuela companies. Colombian theater is supported by the Ministry of Culture and a number of private and state owned organizations.
Although the Colombian cinema is young as an industry, more recently the film industry was growing with support from the Film Act passed in Some important national circulation newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador.
Television in Colombia has two privately owned TV networks and three state-owned TV networks with national coverage, as well as six regional TV networks and dozens of local TV stations.
Private channels, RCN and Caracol are the highest-rated. The regional channels and regional newspapers cover a department or more and its content is made in these particular areas.
Colombia has three major national radio networks: There are other national networks, including Cadena Super , Todelar , and Colmundo.
Many hundreds of radio stations are registered with the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications. Colombia's varied cuisine is influenced by its diverse fauna and flora as well as the cultural traditions of the ethnic groups.
Colombian dishes and ingredients vary widely by region. Some of the most common ingredients are: Among the most representative appetizers and soups are patacones fried green plantains , sancocho de gallina chicken soup with root vegetables and ajiaco potato and corn soup.
Representative side dishes are papas chorreadas potatoes with cheese , remolachas rellenas con huevo duro beets stuffed with hard-boiled egg and arroz con coco coconut rice.
Tejo is Colombia's national sport and is a team sport that involves launching projectiles to hit a target. Colombia has been awarded " mover of the year " twice.
Colombia is a hub for roller skaters. Of those cities have come good players like: Colombia was world amateur champion in and Boxing is one of the sports that more world champions has produced for Colombia.
Colombia also has excelled in sports such as BMX , judo , shooting sport , taekwondo , wrestling , high diving and athletics , also has a long tradition in weightlifting and bowling.
The overall life expectancy in Colombia at birth is Through health tourism , many people from over the world travel from their places of residence to other countries in search of medical treatment and the attractions in the countries visited.
Colombia is projected as one of Latin America's main destinations in terms of health tourism due to the quality of its health care professionals , a good number of institutions devoted to health, and an immense inventory of natural and architectural sites.
It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties academic, technical, business, and so on.
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded.
The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller , because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato sixth to eleventh grade.
This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
Technical professional institutions of Higher Education are also opened to students holder of a qualification in Arts and Business. This qualification is usually awarded by the SENA after a two years curriculum.
Bachilleres high-school graduates may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies , even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine.
In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title.
Once graduated from the university, people are granted a professional, technical or technological diploma and licensed if required to practice the career they have chosen.
For some professional career programs, students are required to take the Saber-Pro test, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.
Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in was 4. The primary and secondary gross enrolment ratios stood at School-life expectancy was A total of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Colombia disambiguation. Not to be confused with Columbia. Country in South America.
Although the Colombian Constitution specifies Spanish Castellano as the official language in all Colombian territory, other languages spoken in the country by ethnic groups — approximately 68 languages — each is also official in its own territory.
History of Colombia and Timeline of Colombian history. Ciudad Perdida "The Lost City". Fauna of Colombia and Flora of Colombia. Colombian Constitution of Foreign relations of Colombia.
Diplomatic missions of Colombia. Departments of Colombia and Municipalities of Colombia. List of cities in Colombia and Corregimientos of Colombia.
Agriculture in Colombia and Industry of Colombia. Science and technology in Colombia. List of Colombian Departments by population. Human biological diversity and ethnicity   Percentage Mestizo and White.
Human biological diversity and ethnicity in Colombia. People with African ancestry in Colombia are concentrated mostly in coastal areas.
Amerindian population of Colombia by municipality in Freedom of religion in Colombia. Festivals in Colombia and Colombian folklore.
Work of the painter, and sculptor Fernando Botero. Monumental hypogea of the Tierradentro culture. Colonial city Cartagena de Indias has a military architecture characterized by solid walls and castles, colonial neighborhoods and churches.
Musical Regions of Colombia. Health care in Colombia. Colombia leads the annual ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America. Colombia portal Latin America portal.
The people of San Basilio fought against slavery, thereby giving rise to the first free place in the Americas. Peter cared for the African slaves for thirty-eight years, defending the life and the dignity of the slaves.
The increasing violence and human rights abuses of the s and s led him to fight for social justice in his community. He developed a program that has offered more than 40, young people the education and moral support they needed to become productive citizens.
Retrieved 15 June The Society and Its Environment; Colombia: Retrieved 8 May Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 4 April United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 14 March Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 16 February Retrieved 2 May Revista Credencial in Spanish.
Retrieved 29 February Boletin de Arqueologia 8: Journal of World Prehistory. Los indios de Colombia in Spanish.
Retrieved 2 April Cartagena de Indias en el siglo XVI. El dorado en el pantano in Spanish. Revista Credencial Historia - banrepcultural. Archived from the original on 8 April Empires of the Atlantic World: Britain and Spain in America, — Archived from the original PDF on 29 June Instituciones y Archivos" PDF.
Archived from the original PDF on 7 April Palenque, Cartagena y Afro-Caribe: VII — IX, 21— A life at the service of an Expedition — ". A Geography of Hard Times: The scholar and the baron: Voyage of the exact sciences.
A Scientist at Work in Nueva Granada. Why is it celebrated on 20 July? Retrieved 18 July History of a Misunderstanding — " in Spanish.
Plaza y Janes Editores Colombia sa. Archived from the original on 16 February Revista de Indias 68, no. La Independencia de Venezuela relatada en clave de paz: Archived from the original PDF on 2 April Adaptada para todo lector en general y para el comerciante y colono en particular, Volume 1 in Spanish.
Universidad Militar Nueva Granada. Universidad Libre Seccional Pereira. Archived from the original PDF on 27 March International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Archived from the original PDF on Historia extensa de Colombia. Archived from the original on 7 August Archived from the original PDF on 30 October Historia y Espacio in Spanish.
Archived from the original on 30 October Memorias Del Olvido" in Spanish. Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Centro Editorial.
Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 16 April The assassination marked the start of a decade of bloodshed, called La Violencia The Violence , which took the lives of an estimated , Colombians before it subsided in The Kellogg Institute for International Studies.
La alianza para el progreso de Colombia. Archived from the original PDF on 21 January Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 24 April Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 28 March Colombia and the United States: Retrieved 10 March El Tiempo in Spanish.
Yale School of Management. CIA world fact book. Retrieved 24 September Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 6 September Voters reject Farc peace deal".
Retrieved 2 November Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 23 March Oficina del Alto Comisionado para la Paz.
Retrieved 24 August The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March Heirat in Europa Deutschland, Dänemark, Schweiz Mitglieder stellen sich vor Hier ist der Bereich in dem Du Dich den anderen Mitgliedern vorstellen und ein paar Infos zu deiner Person geben kannst.
Geburtstagsglückwünsche , Wir trauern Fernbeziehungen Wer möchte nicht geliebt werden? Nichts ist schöner als wenn man liebt und geliebt wird.
Doch die Entfernung wie bewältigt Ihr das? Beziehungsgeschichten die Ihr uns erzählen wollt und zu denen Ihr eventuell Rat sucht.
Projekte Gegen Wind und Wellen. Projekte die in Kolumbien helfen stellen wir hier vor Spanisch lernen mit Riza Mitglieder helfen Mitgliedern.
Spanisch lernen einfach gemacht. Archivo , , , , , Juegos de palabras Consiste en modificar el significado de una palabra o frase.
Persönlichkeiten aus Kolumbien Hier werden sie vorgestellt Kleine Computerecke Hard- Software und alles was zum Thema passt ist hier gut aufgehoben.
Jeder kann hier mitmachen. Südamerika News vom Kontinent. Archiv , , , , , , Südamerika.
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