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Petersburg which exists in the pages of Russian novels and poetry, and which Tre dagar efter Lenins död ändrar staden namn till Leningrad. Det var en stor prestigeförlust för Hitler.
Händelsen är känd som de niohundra dagarna. Ett annat namn, som framför allt använts i Finland bland annat av marskalken president Gustaf Mannerheim är "Nevastaden".
Staden är huvudcentrum för maskinutveckling, inklusive kraftverksutrustning, maskiner, varv , verktygstillverkning , metallurgi , kemikalier, tryckerier och som en av de största hamnarna i Östersjön.
Sankt Petersburgs klimat liknar Helsingfors klimat, förutom det att Sankt Petersburg har varmare somrar och kallare vintrar. Petrodvortsovyj inkluderar Lomonosovskij, som var ett eget stadsdistrikt Tunnelbana samt bussar täcker innerstad med förorter.
Staden är ett stort transportnav även när det gäller sjöfart och vägar. Tunnelbanestationerna ligger mycket djupt under marken och har utsmyckats likt Moskvas tunnelbanestationer.
Hamnar finns i Finska viken , i Östersjön via kanaler samt i floden Neva. Sankt Petersburg har ett rikt kulturliv och nattliv, speciellt för den som kan ett par ord ryska.
För andra betydelser, se Saint Petersburg olika betydelser. För andra betydelser, se Petersburg olika betydelser.
The style of Petrine Baroque , developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace , Kunstkamera , Peter and Paul Cathedral , Twelve Collegia , became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century.
In , Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility —resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son.
But four years later, in , under Empress Anna of Russia , Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars , as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another years until the communist revolution of In — the city suffered from catastrophic fires.
To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city center was moved to the Admiralty borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva and Fontanka.
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt which is considered the main street of the city , Gorokhovaya Street and Voznesensky Prospekt.
Baroque architecture became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace.
In the s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in , the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings.
During the reign of Catherine the Great in the s—s, the banks of the Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it was not until that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Blagoveshchensky Bridge , was allowed to open. Before that, only pontoon bridges were allowed.
Obvodny Canal dug in — became the southern limit of the city. The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included:.
By the s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider Mariinsky Palace , Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace , Nicholas Palace , New Michael Palace and Konstantin Thon Moskovsky railway station.
Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base in Kronstadt , river and sea port.
The Revolution of began in Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces. In March , during the February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated both for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule.
In September and October , German troops invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion.
On 12 March , the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing Civil War , in general Yudenich advancing from Estonia repeated the attempt to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced him to retreat.
On 26 January , five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly.
The city has over places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. In the s and s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs.
Constructivist architecture flourished around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity ; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments kommunalkas.
In a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favor of a more pompous Stalinist architecture.
Moving the city center further from the border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt , designated as the new main street of Leningrad.
Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city center. In December , Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast.
At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in and turned into Vsevolozhsky District , Krasnoselsky District , Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District renamed Pavlovsky District in On 1 December , Sergey Kirov , the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge.
The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history.
It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga , which could not make it through until the lake literally froze.
More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated.
A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on 8 May the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War , during the Brezhnev era.
These included the town of Terijoki renamed Zelenogorsk in The general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the north as well as in the south.
In Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad.
In the settlements Levashovo , Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad. Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair — , a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR.
It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow.
The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Kuznetsov , the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, to prison or exile exonerated in About 2, ranking officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions.
They were accused of Russian nationalism. The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system , designed before the war, opened in with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze.
However, after the death of Stalin in , the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture were abandoned. From the s to the s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre in order to live in separate apartments.
On 12 June , simultaneously with the first Russian presidential elections , the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the name of the city.
Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food aid from abroad.
In , Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor".
In Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in ; the long-awaited restoration of broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time.
But in Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko. The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage.
In the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city.
Although the central part of the city has a UNESCO designation there are about 8, architectural monuments in Petersburg , the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial.
In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta , a historical area northwest of the city center, and the new project would be named Lakhta Center.
Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is Petersburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland , and islands of the river delta.
The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus , North of the city, is a popular resort area.
The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea , caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay.
The five most disastrous floods occurred in 4. To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra , Okhta and Izhora.
The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv , Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes. Due to its northerly location at ca.
A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all night is called the white nights. Under the Köppen climate classification , Saint Petersburg is classified as Dfb , a humid continental climate.
Distinct moderating influence of the Baltic Sea cyclones result in warm, humid and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters.
The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki , although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location.
The average annual temperature is 5. The Neva River within the city limits usually freezes up in November—December and break-up occurs in April.
Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow's due to the Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing.
The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round. Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due to the cool climate.
The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local toponymy is the story of the own name of the city itself. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names its construction began simultaneously with the citadel made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress , while St.
Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. In June Peter the Great officially gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh an emulation of Dutch topografical suffix -burg , which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile which was subsequently russified.
A to letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too cumbersome, and a lot of shortened versions appeared in habitual use.
It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. In s Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of Greek: In the s Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of "Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd in one of his poems.
Since the prefix 'Saint' was omitted,  this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from Apostle Peter to Peter the Great, [ citation needed ] its founder.
A referendum on reversing the renaming of Leningrad was held on 12 June , with Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option. This change officially took effect on 6 September Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya "first-throned" for years.
An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg.
Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution " used in Soviet era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here.
For their part, poetic names of the city, like the " Venice of the North " and the "Northern Palmyra " emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northern location of this megalopolis.
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,, or 3.
The Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: The ethnicity of the remaining During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes.
The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the s. After the siege, some of the evacuees returned, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union.
From to the city's population decreased to 4. Based on the census results the population is over 4. People in urban Saint Petersburg lived mostly in apartments.
Between and the s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced residents to share communal apartments kommunalkas.
Resettling residents of kommunalkas is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are still not uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the s—s, over half a million low income families eventually received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand condos were purchased.
While economic and social activity is concentrated in the historic city centre , the richest part of Saint Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas.
For the first half of , the birth rate was 9. The previous table showing religious membership within Saint Petersburg shows that roughly half of the population are Russian Orthodoxy.
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia a federal city. Saint Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly , which is the city's regional parliament.
According to the federal law passed in , heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures.
Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko , was approved according to the new system in December She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on August 22, Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job.
After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In , following passage of a new federal law,  restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor.
Saint Petersburg city is divided into eighteen districts. Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast , and of the Northwestern Federal District.
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB , postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services.
Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry ; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment ; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy production of aluminium alloys ; chemicals, pharmaceuticals , and medical equipment ; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses.
It was also home to Lessner , one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers along with Russo-Baltic ; it was founded by machine tool and boiler maker G.
Lessner in , with designs by Boris Loutsky , and it survived until Ten percent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ , which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world.
Saint Petersburg has three large cargo seaports: International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island.
In the first two berths were opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway.
The Saint Petersburg Mint Monetny Dvor , founded in , is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins , medals and badges.
Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura , which made thousands of sculptures and statues that are now gracing public parks of Saint Petersburg, as well as many other cities.
Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg , Paolo Troubetzkoy , Mark Antokolsky , and others, were made there.
Opel , Hyundai and Nissan have signed deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint Petersburg too.
Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade. Saint Petersburg is the location of a significant brewery and distillery industry.
The city has a lot of local distilleries that produce a broad range of vodka brands. In this brand was exported to over 70 countries.
Saint Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction.
In Saint Petersburg's city budget was The federal subject's Gross Regional Product as of [update] was 3.
Budget revenues of the city in amounted to Petersburg takes the 4th place on economy scales among all subjects of the Russian Federation, conceding only to Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region.
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower m , Alexander Nevsky m and Atlantic City m all three being situated far away from the historical centre.
Regulations forbid construction of tall buildings in the city centre. In , the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically.
The complex will include metre-tall 1,foot office skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy and, unlike the previous unbuilt project, is not seen by UNESCO as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is located far away from the historical centre.
Skyscraper construction has already started, and the building is set to be completed in It is assumed that the building will be the tallest in Russia and Europe.
Unlike in Moscow, in Saint Petersburg the historic architecture of the city centre, mostly consisting of Baroque and neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad and in recent years.
Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque , the largest mosque in Europe when opened in , is situated on the right bank nearby.
The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera , Twelve Collegia , Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts.
It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University. On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge , lie the Admiralty building , the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment , which includes the baroque Winter Palace , former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace.
Nevsky Prospekt , also situated on the left bank of the Neva , is the main avenue in the city. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square.
The Passage , Catholic Church of St. The Alexander Nevsky Lavra , intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky , is an important centre of Christian education in Russia.
It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Petersburgers. Many notable landmarks are situated to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral , Mariinsky Palace , Hotel Astoria , famous Mariinsky Theatre , New Holland Island , Saint Isaac's Cathedral , the largest in the city, and Senate Square , also known as Decembrist's Square with the Bronze Horseman , 18th century equestrian monument to Peter the Great , which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols.
Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral.
The Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city. Every night during the navigation period from April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule.
There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning across numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika , Fontanka , Griboyedov Canal , Obvodny Canal , Karpovka and Smolenka.
Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called Venice of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments.
The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets. Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof , with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo , with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace , and Pavlovsk , which contains a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe.
Some other residences situated nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina , actually belong to Leningrad Oblast rather than Saint Petersburg.
Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts.
The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors.
Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses. Some of these structures, such as the Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.
Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage. The 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble of the city and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form.
For various reasons including large-scale destruction during World War II and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centers of Europe , Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries.
Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped the city to retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-lateth-century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city center.
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture.
New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage.
The city has museums, libraries, more than 80 theaters, concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas and around 80 other cultural establishments.
Every year the city hosts around festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones. Despite the economic instability of the s , not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets opened in is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and ' Pushkin's Petersburg '.
The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its rich collection of Russian art , but also the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky ; Museum of Musical Instruments , the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation.
The musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals.
Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world.
Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of famous and prominent Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev , Natalia Makarova , Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world.
Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman , who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits.
Remaining faithful to the classical basis he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet , he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style , and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema , color, light, and finally with spoken word.
All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system.
In Rostelecom , the national operator announced it began a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them hosted in historic buildings.
The largest of the museums is the Hermitage Museum , featuring interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art.
The Russian Museum is a large museum devoted specifically to Russian fine art. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums.
The Kunstkamera , with its collection established in by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.
A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the U.
Museum ship cruiser Aurora. The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory , was founded in by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein.
The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky , Sergei Prokofiev , Artur Kapp , Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich , who taught at the conservatory during the s, bringing it additional fame.
The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from to Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony".
He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March ; a few month later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg.
It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic — a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times — led the orchestra from being a little-known provincial ensemble to it becoming one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras today, especially for the performance of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal courts of other European capitals. Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country.
The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky.
The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In the s student rock-groups Argonavty , Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals.
In Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium , which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed.
In the s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club , which provided a stage to bands such as DDT , Kino , headed by Viktor Tsoi , Alisa , Zemlyane , Zoopark , Piknik , Secret , and many other popular bands.
The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika , mixing over people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the s.
SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music , Electro-Mechanica on electronic music , and Ethnomechanica on world music.
In the early s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore , rapcore , and emocore , and there are bands such as Amatory , Kirpichi , Psychea, Stigmata , Grenouer and Animal Jazz.
The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year.
The rave band Little Big also hails from Saint Petersburg. Over international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. The first film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg.
The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina , starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The film White Nights received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union by Western production companies was generally unheard of.
Onegin is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM , intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg , as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival , since its inauguration in during the White Nights.
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia.
It frequently appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol , the novels of Dostoyevsky , the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam , and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely.
According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind , these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself.
The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin , Gogol and Dostoyevsky.
Another important feature of early Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories , as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint Petersburg.
Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city. Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during the Summer Olympics.
The Goodwill Games were also held here. In boating, the first competition here was the rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet.
Yachting events were held by the Russian Navy since the foundation of the city. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats.
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh , among others.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Lasker , Capablanca , Alekhine , Tarrasch and Marshall.
In a crowd of , set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. The team leader was local player Andrei Arshavin. There is also a second professional football club in Saint Petersburg, FC Dynamo Saint Petersburg , which is owned by the historic Dynamo sports society.
Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice.
They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg. They also won the Saporta Cup twice and Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin.
It hosted group stage games, a round of 16 game, a semi-final and a third place match. All games were played at Krestovsky Stadium.
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in , and since then the city's transport infrastructure has continued to develop and keep pace with the growth of the city.
Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro , and is home to a number of riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wider world by a number of federal highways and national and international rail routes.
Pulkovo Airport serves the majority of air passengers departing from or arriving to the city. Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport buses, trams , trolleybuses and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas.
Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main mean of transport; in the s this was the largest tram network in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in ; it now has 5 lines with 69 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.
As of , the Saint Petersburg Metro will include new stations: Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow.
The construction of freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road , completed in , and the Western High-Speed Diameter , completed in , helped partially reduce the traffic in the city.
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 min.
The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland , Baltic Sea , the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river.
Zenit petersburg -Damit hat Zenit es selbst in der Hand, morgen wieder 6 Punkte Abstand zum 2. Urheberrechtsfragen Diese Datei stellt ein Logo oder ein ähnliches Objekt dar. Champions League Tuchel schwärmt nach Neymar-Gala: Hälfte kam Alexander Kokorin für Erokhin, der wohl in der ersten Hälfte leichte Blessuren davongetragen hatte. Dort verlor Zenit zuhause 2: Danach folgten die Pokalsiege , und , der Ligapokal und die erfolgreichen Meisterschaften in den Jahren , , sowie Platz in der Oberliga und erreichte das Pokalhalbfinale.
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